“There is no greater pleasure to learn to solve problems ”

Samuel Johnson



To solve problems it is necessary to have a spirit of curiosity, inspiration, innovation, creativity, inference, induction, deduction, capacity, imagination and organization. It is these attitudes that must be taken by a human being, in order to get to decipher a goal from certain data, that is, to get an answer to a question posed, as a result of a discrepancy. It is not, then, the solution of problems in a normal and daily thought, but in a thought that has been called divergent. This divergence is precisely, not in the use of both hands or both arms, but in the use of the mind, in order to overcome the old self, achieving mental training, as well as the body and soul. Mastering the mind, shaping the character, making the environment and forming the destiny constitute elements of the new era, which lead to understanding, in order to have the intellectual pleasure, the greatest pleasure, to overcome problems, enunciating them, analyzing them, overcoming them and solving them. Everyone has problems, but few have the interpretative divergence of the resolution of difficulties, conflicts, problems and disasters. Now, every problem is an unknown problem, but every problem has a solution, however acute, serious or difficult it may be. Men and women unable to be mayoral, that is why “if you understand that some are capable of putting them as mayoral,” says Sacred Scripture.


a) Curiosity: It is the desire to know and find out something, investigate it, snoop it, for being in doubtful, ignored or hidden and wanting to get skills and abilities in what is executed. Some people confuse positive and negative curiosity, which is an attitude that leads us to inquire what should not matter to us. It is advisable not to confuse the person who has a spirit of curiosity, research, investigation (scientist, technician, historian, philosopher) with the curious (practitioner, nurse, healer, shaman, guru). The first treats a thing with particular care, diligence or dedication and the second exercises a therapy or practices speculation. The resolution of problems requires the spirit of curiosity, investigation, investigation and snooping to properly treat the puzzle and solve it, however difficult it is to understand or interpret it. Where there is a spirit of curiosity there will be no insurmountable problems. In idealistic pragmatism it works very well, to go to the bottom in the search for universal laws, by examining the practical aspects of all scientific, moral or religious doctrine that contains those laws.

b) Inspiration: It consists in giving birth in the mind or mind, ideas, designs, affections, through a stimulus that occurs spontaneously to find things without any effort. It does not require the use of any vigor, nor physical force to break down difficulties and get what you want. Generally they are called inspired people who know how to make poetry, because their product appears spontaneously and in an original way; but it is said to be inspired or enlightened of those great men who have transformed humanity. Also the artists and writers who make their compositions with suggestions of their own harvest and nature. In solving problems, inspired people find alternative paths and paths, by looking beyond normal limits and finding them without difficulty. Inspiration is similar to intuition. In the inspiration, perception and detailed vision are made, that things are glimpsed with clairvoyance, with foreboding and almost con adivination. It is like an additional sixth sense through which solutions are manifested that leave us amazed. The admiration for inspiration is so much that we fake hearing about inspired, enlightened and great stories and stories have been made with the subject. Lighting has a lot to do with inspiration and Eduardo Shure made in his book “The Great Initiates” the narrative about Rama, Krishna, Hermes, Moses, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Plato, Jesus, Zoroaster, Buddha and the Essenes, the explanation of both concepts and how they exercised it. These people transformed humanity, changing the norms of mental interpretation and advancing the culture well of the world population.

c) Innovation: To innovate is to be in constant work, to find out how to do more and more things or to do them better. It has to do with bringing new ideas, launching new products on the one hand; and on the other, always do things in a better way; in a more efficient, effective and impactful way. It consists in the problem of always being questioning in relation to the activities where one is developing, to do them better and on the other hand within the business field where one is, looking for new concepts, developing new ideas, to stay as a point of reference in the market. (Manuel Sucre: Human Resources Magazine No.11).

The human being wants to see differences between one market and another; increase the transparency of information; to see the potential of possible combinations to see what is not and that the observer can fill. The best ideas innovate and emerge above the existing as a cascade of changes. In many parts the month of innovation is decreed, but new and valid ideas with these decrees do not arise, because it is the innovative people who produce them and bring the discussion to the table. Now the speed of innovative changes is exponential and in a globalized world, competition is too. Today’s future is and will always be the same, the only thing faster and closer. In all the crises Latin America has experienced, in terms of its companies, those that survived were those that used innovation. This means, neither more nor less, that companies that do not separate innovative response to their customers will simply disappear. Innovation can be retained in a leader who can create spaces in anyone’s risk, but it can also consist of a ladder, so that space flows and others go up, which generates innovation. Of course, this constitutes risks and the risks may mean loss of money or at least some expense; but it is convenient to spend on innovation, because it is subsistence itself. With that expense it should be taken into account that the main objective is the market. Minimizing risk is a matter for each company, but if innovation does not work immediately, innovators cannot be punished, because everything in life is continuous learning; We must take innovation as a way of life, both individual and organizational and the decision to be innovative. We must make it present, through a realization strategy, as an execution process and not as a simple action program.

d) Creativity: It is present when the mind becomes aware of the relationship between ideas, thus generating a third (Spearman, cited in Sternberg, 1993). Creativity is in the capacity and attitude to generate ideas and communicate them (Torres cited in Mitjans, 1995 both cited by Recio). Through creativity they can solve problems because who solves them, look where other people do not see. It has been conceived as a characteristic of personality; as a process; As a product and as an environment. In the first case (personality), the creative person always goes beyond what has been learned, beyond the information stored and beyond the logic of the facts, even if they have served as the beginning. Transforming, asking questions about solutions and not looking for a single solution but several alternatives, is characteristic of creativity. In Latin America we say “when you go, I come”, but if it comes with the solution there is creativity. The creative person is open and of good imagination, plays with the ideas and knows how to communicate them, adapts to any circumstance and especially esoriginal. From the point of view of creativity as a process, reality is known, decomposed and reconstructed in new terms. According to Wallas (cited in Solso 1,998, both cited in Recio), creativity involves the provision of information, preparation, processing or incubation, information output or lighting and process evaluation. Creativity as a product is a highly valued factor in industrial and commercial aspects (companies) since through this valuation essential qualities of production can be determined, which are a) that production incorporates something new and b) that production be Useful. It also allows to know the elegance of the product, its simplicity and the ease of use. In creativity as an environment the atmosphere in which it is created must be considered, especially if there is discipline, responsibility and freedom; if you work as a football team, or in any other sports team, where each player puts his part with complete freedom and conviction.

The creative person must look for and pursue high-flying ideas, such as eagles and not stave low ideas, such as snakes and consequently outdated. Then, recognize ideas with potential values, so that they are widely accepted and sell those ideas to other people. Acting with freedom, confidence and having a place for creativity, means being in the playground and freely and without bothering analytical results, because there is no restriction, you have confidence in yourself and others and you are always in the place suitable for transferring ideas as creative products.

e) Inference: It is a mental process that consists in obtaining from the already known knowledge, other implicit knowledge in these. It is a relationship or link between two situations or two events. Inference is thought to be basic for learning induction, deduction and analogy, for understanding language and communication and for performing abstract thinking. Inference is the most useful element in solving problems and is usually related to word pairs, that is, given a couple of them, conclusions are drawn from each other. Sternberg established categories of word pairs: part-all, predicative, coordination, equality, similarity, contrast, all-part, denial, word relationship, subordination, termination and supraordination. Constant practice helps inference learning, but it must also be continuous because it is an abstract activity. When we say love, words are connected simply because they rhyme; sleep – slept, the grammatical connection; yes – no logical or mathematical denials; six eighths – seventy-five percent, equality by mathematical or logical equivalence; stable – plot, all – part, relationship in which B is part of A; minute – hour, part – everything, relationship in which A sparks B; Holy Virgin Mary, each term is part of an expression, the three words are part of a single unit; fish – shark, superordination, relationship where A is a category that includes B; carrot – beet, coordination, the two terms refer to the same issue and are of the same category; when the relation is of a verb the category is called predicative: the term A describes something about the term B, cook-pots, ice-cold, cow-moored, where cook uses pots, ice is a cold source, cow produces mooing; the contrast is between antonyms or words that are opposite in meaning, green-mature, high-low, fat-thin; and similarity between synonyms relations or between words that mean the same thing, furious – rabid, fearful – dark, lucid – clear. It may happen that the inference is not true or logical but represents a fallacy that is to say a false relationship or not congruent with reality. It is called fallacy inference: if they call us for lunch and it takes us half an hour waiting for the soup to cool down because we think they can throw the hot soup on us and burn us; The relationship is neither true nor logical, it is fallacious, because we assume something that should not occur normally. If we take an exam at a university and they do not accept us then we look for work because they will not accept us at any other university; fallacious thought, fallacious inference, because the fact that they do not accept me from one university does not mean that they do not accept me in another.

f) Induction: In inductive reasoning the thought process goes from the parts to the whole, or from the particular to the general; hypotheses of the environment characteristics are raised and then evidence is sought that supports or invalidates them. Sternberg (Triadic Knowledge Theory), points out that inductive reasoning consists of seven (7) components: coding, inference, functionalization, application, comparison, justification and response. When the mental execution process is inductively reasoned, it acquires a variety of forms, but the most frequent are ANALOGIES, COMPLEMENTATION OF SERIES AND CLASSIFICATIONS.

These types of problems contain underlying elements that can form the basis of knowledge (some authors); it means that in the induction the reasoning is not based on assumptions of pure logic, but adds assumptions of reality, about the way of being of the concrete, temporal reality. The foundation of induction is the regularity of the course of nature, whether it be simple hypotheses or a certain truth. It is a foundation of facts as well as facts, the very existence of the universe. The starting point refers to facts of experience, to sensitive, real objects. Coding allows us to interpret and organize the stimuli and make mental representations of them; it depends on the knowledge acquired and the experience; It is coded according to the purposes to be achieved. The inference was explained in the previous recital. Functionalization is the recognition of a second-order relationship, based on two first-order relationships and the ability to infer and relate is required. The application allows you to use a previously inferred relationship to complete the meaning of a new relationship. The comparison consists of analyzing the previous occasions with the new case or fact, in order to draw conclusions and therefore the medium and long term memory is required, to bring the antecedent or fact with which we will compare the new structure. The justification is the process by means of which, before several valid alternatives, the most appropriate one is chosen and the reasons for the choice are established. Answer is the solution to the problem as a result of a procedure. We must remember that the answers must be evaluated to verify, through a process called feedback, which consists of evaluating possible failures through external surveys and correcting them on the fly, as well as looking internally for errors in order to save them and be able to present the product, satisfaction of some person or groups of people, as would the community.

g) Deduction: Method by which one proceeds logically from the universal to the particular, that is to say, consequences are derived from a principle, proposition or assumption by derivation or inference. The particular truths are achieved from the general hypotheses and this method is strictly conformed by the syllogism, which is, in its capital forms, a conclusion from the universal to the particular and in all its forms, a conclusion from of the universal. The reasoning of the deductive receives its validity from the logical principles of identity, contradiction, excluded third party, and constitutes an axiom whose truth is undoubted and immediate. And it is not necessary to bring anything about the real structure of objects since not only logical principles and logical relationships intervene, so it is a complex discursive process. When two judgments are given, another is required based on the first two, the major, minor and conclusion premises. Every man is mortal. Socrates is man. Socrates is mortal (major premise, minor and conclusion). The syllogism can be presented in various ways depending on the quantity and quality of the premises; there is irregular syllogism, compounds, complexes, paralogisms or sophisms. The latter consists of an incorrect reasoning that is not valid and is given the name of fallacy, many times in these cases a thing that is not under discussion is answered or something is proven that is not appropriate to prove. The study of syllogism, the principles that govern the forms and modes of the same and in general the study of the deductive method is a matter of modern logic to understand the signs, language and metalanguage; and arrive at the concept of deductive logic as well as reasoning, symbolization, laws and logical truths. The beginning of deductive reasoning cannot be an immediate trial of experience, since if there were, it would be a statement about facts that entails a prior induction and the deduction is drawn from universal judgments.

h) Capacity: Genesis 47.6. In this biblical passage one of the great interpretations of the capacity is established, it relates the understanding and the understanding to establish it. “If you understand” because otherwise you understand what is being spoken to you. This passage is related to that of Proverbs 22,28, which is as follows: “Have you contemplated a skilled man in his work? In front of Reyes is where he will be; he will not bet in front of ordinary men. ” Skill at work has always been considered an excellence. “A message to Garcia” contains the explanation of the work capacity of employees and workers and has a lot to do with the star workers who are the ones who do the work, although 90% of the ring do something or do it very badly. In Latin America it is said that there are no insoluble problems but incapable men and women; The skill and ability to develop work, carve wood, make mosaic, build, make roads, buildings, schools, water works (drinking and irrigation) and the hundreds of jobs that give crafts, are closely related to the training that People who want to learn exercise. In Venezuela there is a national educational training institute, which at least in theory is to teach arts and crafts (INCE). Jean Paúl Sarte, referring to the farmers who cut the wheat, said of them “that cults are cutting the wheat” that is, what perfection of trade they perform in this agricultural work; “Understood in the matter” we also say to refer to someone who does things well. The capable people have a privileged place in humanity, so much that they are looking for them with the lantern of Diogenes, in order to place them as mayoral (foremen, leaders, leaders, caporals, directors, drivers, principals, bosses, managers, superiors, etc. .). On many occasions the inability to do things not only from lack of understanding, but from the lack for the good performance of an art or industry business; if there is a lack of understanding, one cannot appoint mayoral, but when there is a lack of disposition and the person is named mayoral, it is possible that sabotages, accidents, accidents, damages and matters arising from negligence, recklessness or ignorance of the rules may occur. that lack of disposition that can be simulated or intentional.

i) Imagination: Imagination is to the soul what the word is to the spirit. It consists in seeing reality but abstractly, so it is a state of mind that solves preferences, desires or needs. If the imagined is realistic the solution is equally realistic. It differs from the fantasy in that it is not traceable, realizable, but fabulous. The representation of experiences is carried out through the imagination, and the lived events, the ones that are being lived and the potential future events that are to happen (Trilogy) are implicit; hence, Einstein has said that imagination is greater than knowledge. Representation is essential to the imagination (scenarios, characters, objects, feelings, motivations and emotions). The understanding of life is exercised through the crucial role of the imagination through its fantastic role of the brain. The mental task is imagination and the arts are expressed through it, that is why wood and bronze speak, are elevated, the Quixote, King Lear, Poor People, One Hundred Years of Solitude, Doña Bárbara are written; films are made, such as “What the Wind Wore” and so on; It was the imagination, which made WaltDisney’s inanimate objects come alive.

j) Organization: It is the art of problem solving in advance. Allow available resources to the extent possible, coordinating the interdependence of each of them. Access to the different slopes of thought and action (360º), conserve and expand the life of the integral elements; recognizing the adaptive limitations and with exact knowledge of the temporality, for which reason, creativity is organization and especially INNOVATION.

The organization has taken shape in recent centuries and has reached the structuralization of it, through the integral management of quality and excellence (GICE). The approach through which the method of breaking down language, culture and society (Environment) has been taken into account. Its main foundation is interrelation, through which practices, phenomena and activities are experienced. Sensory perception and ideas (creativity) also greatly influence the organization. The organization is based fundamentally on the experience that is the basis and sum of all knowledge. Influence discipline, concentration, patience, tenacity and knowing how to relate unforeseen events, such as adaptability to changes and management control.


The existence of a present situation that we do not like, makes us think of a desired state, going through the permanent learning of immortal souls, that is, those who do new things and understand. Moving from an existing situation to a desired situation is typical of these interesting times, in order to be successful, both personally and in organizations. However, problem solving is not a panacea that cures all diseases.



Generally, when a problem arises, we will immediately begin to solve it, without thinking much about what it is, what data exist and which are missing and why, what the restrictions are and even ignore what it is that we are asked or requested in response. When this happens we are faced with an impulsive behavior equal to that of the child, who takes a candy and wants to immediately punish the person who has taken it, without thinking about the action, but on the objectivity and resolution of Problems require subjectivity to internalize the possible solution or solutions if there are alternatives. Do not think in only one direction. This limits achieving the goals of real, true solutions, because we go one way and every time we don’t miss we go back to the path that leads us to the same mistake. We get the same stones, the same thorns and stumble upon the same obstacles. In other words, we repeat the steps we did previously and fall again. For this reason, in recent times, divergent thinking that consists in using the mind in depth to reach the goals is being taught.

b) PLAN STRATEGIES. If you work in an unsystematic way, that is, without a pre-established order, you try to solve the problem as quickly as possible, without reaching the goal because we are acting by trial and error, we try to find out if we succeed, but we err and We rehearse to return to error. Planning is always good, because of that war warned does not die soldier, if he dies it is careless.


If this happens, it is very serious, because instead of the natural restrictions of the problem we multiply them by two (2) or by one fifty (1.50), with which we are enlarged the unknowns, the enigmas and the questions, getting tangled up in the skein structured by the problem itself, plus our own participation. For example, if we find three sides in the given situation, we place another side, it will be four and not three, so that the solution moves away and leaves us.


This is essential. If it is a personal or collective problem, to what matter it belongs, what dimensions it has, what its cardinal points are, what data it has, what is missing, what is the question, what follows with the answer. If we notice that the problem has some difficulty and by not defining its nature, we reduce the possibility of solution.


We cannot ignore the value of the past compared to similar situations. Let us remember that there are nations (Commonwealth) where problems are solved by resorting to the precedent, to the custom and they solve as it was solved in the past.


When we abandon the solution of problems we can feel any of the following behaviors: Humiliation: It is the act of humiliating another or humiliating oneself, that is to say that it can be voluntary or imposed. The volunteer is used in religion and is not necessarily necessary, because being penitential, it has the effects of catharsis that eliminates karmas, and constitutes a kind of calisthenics or warming in order to dominate the flesh, attacked by the world and the devil. Instead, the imposed is the act by which we feel offended in self-esteem, despised, lowered, and in these cases we feel that we are nobody, without any value, which triggers pain, sadness and suffering. There is a relationship of dominant and dominated, of incubation and succubus, of master and slave, however in this situation we cannot discuss, hence the feelings of  indignation because we are subjected. When we cannot make a problem or solve it and we feel surrendered, we must fight and restart for different reasons so as not to fall into the same hole and make the same mistakes. We have to fill ourselves with courage and prudence so as not to do inappropriate things, begin the search logically, calmly, asserting our knowledge, skills and abilities, and knowing that we are not useless, that we can solve all kinds of problems, and that by defining the statement of it, this is, the nature of the raised, we are able to reach the goal and forget the humiliation that surrender raised. Persist, insist, persevere, stubborn, do not give the arm to twist, remain in your thirteen, which means being stubborn, stubborn, stubborn, stubborn until you reach the happy ending, as in fairy tales. Remember that constancy overcomes what bliss does not reach. 

Despair: It is the total loss of hope. It produces anger (anger) spite or anger. It is an annoying and intolerable situation that takes away our sleep, we take pain inside and we feel like insects of all kinds. Franz Kapka’s beetle is a product of this feeling. We have a weight on us that does not allow us to scream or breathe, we feel drowned, insecure, confused and fearful. Why couldn’t we with the problem? Why do we have to give up? There is despair, time does not go, does not run, does not pass, a minute is very long, an hour is a day and a day is a week. The best we can do is calm down and think clearly about the options we have to solve the problem. We will be back getting roads, paths, corridors, passageways, because somehow, after the storm comes the calm. Surrender produces hopelessness in some cases, which, when disturbed, brings despair. Let us carefully apply the problem-solving technique and hope will come back, since this is the last one that is lost, it was lost because of the desperate attitude but we find paths again and the problem will be solvable. Unbelief: In this situation there is the suspension or indeterminate of the mood between two judgments, or two decisions that we must make and cost in believing or not believing, but the unbeliever always goes through the second of these slopes and does not believe. There is skepticism, perplexity, suspicion, conjecture, objections and discussions, the opinions of others are questioned, there is a difficulty in disgust in believing something and there is no regret with natural things and therefore in the absence could solve the problem, it is believed blindly that we cannot solve it and we surrender. It is what they are seeing with their eyes and underestimate the overcoming, insisting, perseverance; the disbelief caused us to lose the courage to move on, or restart again and again and we simply lost the battle and the war. We leave that to the infinite.

Unbelief is a curse, since the will and intelligence offender are doomed to suffer and the logical consequence is the expression: “we are lost.” That is wrecked. It is there that we have to react and trust in ourselves, in the creator, in our family and in our neighbor in order to draw strength from our own nature and understand that we can, that we are capable of being mayors and that we can solve that And another problem. Let’s use the heart to be soft of feelings, full of confidence and certainty, eliminating doubt and distrust for credulity and not being hard-hearted, because this attitude can bring us greater inconveniences than if we do not solve, they will bring us to the bottom from the well.

DISPOSITION: Discouragement is mother and father of all vices, when present there is no courage, attraction, or disposition. It is an insidious disease against which there are no vaccines or prescriptions, since it is a poison of the strongest and paralyzes the will of an entire people. Against all diseases, there are benefits and ways to fight them, but it is very difficult to combat discouragement. In addition, it brings a great and problematic danger, because it is contagious and full of pessimism to everyone who contracts it. Darkness is widespread and therefore light is scarce and if there is, it is dim and elusive. That is why we say that the mind is clouded and we remain dark. Discouragement overcomes all fiction, comedies, dreams, fantasies, and brings people and peoples to annihilation. When there is euphoria, critical spirit and carnage, the solution of problems disappears completely and the solutions are not seen in the short or medium term, but far, far away, or we simply believe that there is no solution. At this moment we become imprisoned in our own dungeon and self-esteem decreases and the stagnation takes over our body and our mind by one of the most pernicious elements of humanity: discouragement. We have to return to the origins in an urgent way, search and search for the magic formula that will help us to get out of the stagnation, impotence, weakness and weakness. Let’s do it with patience and imagination and touch the rock which Moses did and we will get the living water that is wisdom, love and understanding.


a) Discernment: the facts are collected, combined with each other and then compared with each other to determine what happened, what happens and how the matter can be resolved. Many professionals use this method to solve problems in different disciplines. The police use it daily; It is not reserved for anyone in particular, but can be used by anyone who has some knowledge and can collect, combine and compare information.

b) Dissolution strategy: dissolve, annihilate or destroy the facts or part of them so that the problem disappears or decreases in quantification and importance. It happens a lot in the restoration of real estate, furniture, retouching of relics, all the expert’s judgment.

c) Oblivion: eliminate the existence of the problem from the mind, either because it definitely has no solution, or because we are completely unable to solve it. For example the death of a close relative; The problem with this technique is that people are afraid to forget and with fear we do not get anywhere, in this case the concern persists and the mind will not rest. But we have to learn to forget not to be ruminating the past, bringing it again and again to our mind and our heart.

d) Postponement: leave for another day the discussion of a certain problem, especially in group discussions, where those who intervene do not agree on a certain route for the solution and it is convenient to postpone the discussion on the matter. Almost always the solution in this case arises naturally.

e) The Consultation: it is used in all parts of the world and by all people, around the opinion of a specialist in any of the areas of human knowledge. The consultation is effective and valid both in the resolution of conflicts and in the resolution of problems.

f) Search for strategy: divide into as many sub-problems as possible, in order to solve small difficulties one by one until all is resolved, thereby solving the major problem.

g) Training: it is the physical and mental preparation for solving problems that require special conditions or knowledge. The Fire Department is trained daily for this purpose, because it requires scientific and technical knowledge (for example chiropractic) to extraordinary physical abilities (climbing a building by stairs and then by rope), all in the midst of flames or floods, it is say working under pressure.

h) Acceptance: it is the main method of problem solving, because if we do not accept that the problem exists, we have not done anything, nor can we proceed further. It occurs in those cases of drug use, or alcoholism, if the problem is not accepted, when we try to solve it it is already too late.

i) Prayer: this is a powerful method of problem solving. It was shown in the death of John Paul II that the world turned to prayer, including other religions that were not Catholic, and prostrated at the feet of the dead pontiff, sang and prayed to God, both for them, and for the Pope and all over the world in order to solve the problems that overwhelm humanity.

j) Selection: observation and selection are methods that govern science, Latin America, history, philosophy, art, religion and in general almost all human activities. When there is no selection, all kinds of ingredients are mixed and the result is vario-pinto; and if there is no observation we can be reached by poisonous snakes, which today do not live only in the mountains, but in the cities themselves and walk on two feet. There are many more methodologies in solving problems and each person according to their knowledge can have their own method, because universal thinking and inductions or deductions, inferences and abilities depend on individual reasoning. This situation is due to history, since the inventions have been many and placed one behind the other, they make the list of the facts of the hand of man, translated into artifacts, devices or technemas. We must understand that each discipline has its formulas, equations, premises, assertions, arguments, and in general its own laws for its unraveling, therefore, solving a problem of a particular discipline requires knowledge of that part of knowledge, because we cannot be geometricians being lawyers or vice versa. It is possible that within these norms we will find more expert people than others who are called newbies, but in all science, technique, history or philosophy there are statements, data, goals and solutions. They are in themselves the problems that reflected in the announcement, lead us to their analysis and later to their solution.


When we talk about the statement, it is necessary to take into account that it is there that the nature of the problem must be perfectly defined, determining precisely the structuring of the problem, since this lack leads us to a preliminary examination to define the nature and properly look for the structuring. Once the question is achieved, we will go on wheels towards liberation paths, which reach the solution. Structured a problem we must present it by means of tables, graphs, drawings, diagrams or other forms of representation, in order to take the data we have on paper and extract the convenient inferences that give us light towards the final goal.


Representations have always existed and among the primitive graphic expressions of humanity, cave paintings, made of stone walls, especially in caves and petroglyphs stand out. Rock paintings are not known in Venezuela, but petroglyphs abound. They would be called prehistoric representations. Then the man invented the writing which divided the life of humanity into two periods: 1) Prehistory in which man could not write and 2) The history in which man learned to write. It seems that writing was invented about three thousand years before Christ in Mesopotamia and then also invented in Egypt. It was called cuneiform writing because of the shape of wedges. They were signs that no longer represented cave paintings, or petroglyphs or tribes, a cup = food, a ceiling = celestial vault, a hand number five, a foot = walk, a human-headed falcon suggested the idea of ​​soul. They were the ideograms that were also representations. Then, due to the complication of drawing a picture for each concept, they were made to present sounds (ma, me, mi, mo, mu) or simple sounds such as letters. They became known as phonograms. Already in Egyptian writing it is estimated that there could be about 30 alphabetic phonograms, which expressed simple sounds. Combining ideograms could result in what we know today as charades, which are words that form with the sounds of others. Sun, dice, bed, lion can form a soldier, chameleon with the figures of a sun and a dice; of a bed and a lion. When it comes to explaining an idea to another person, the best way to do it is to represent it graphically, that is, draw it. The primitive peoples became aware of this and began to make maps and itineraries of the occupied territories, on fabrics, mud, stone or paper. The routes to follow were explained by drawing and the first planes of cities and the first maps appeared.

Because of this, we have learned about the Nubian mines; from cities of Mesopotamia and even Antarctica. Architecture also influenced the expression in the construction of temples, pyramids and complex works, in which thousands of people should intervene for centuries. The continuity of the works can be done by the existence of a plane that allowed it. They made plans on a scale model to show the project to the rulers who had commissioned the work. The Incas made clay and stone models before building houses and terraces (platforms) The Aztecs used the drawing to express themselves and the stone of the sun or Aztec calendar is a representation of maximum value, which is held in Mexico, nowadays as a treasure, inherited from that indigenous class; The multiplicity of drawings that make up the unit is great and spectacular, while it is didactic and is part of the national and international historical heritage. At the time of the Renaissance, the drawing was elevated to the instrument category to know, the perspective was discovered and the paintings and in general the works of art of the Renaissance have a solidity, which the works of the previous centuries did not have. Leonardo da Vinci is a high-flying Renaissance master, so much that he made the greatest immortal work of the Painting: La Gioconda. Then the drawing was one of the instruments of the modern Industrial Revolution, whereby objects were projected and mass produced, something that had not happened with artisans, whose production was one by one and scarce. The graphic representation in our days can be seen in figures that represent telephones, gentlemen, ladies, restaurant, gas pump, taxis, and all the figures of road and city traffic, are nothing more than explanatory signs reduced to a representation through the drawing. There are physical and mental maps. Both can be represented by drawings. The first is a graphical representation of the surface of part of the land and have been made using topographic maps or planialimetric maps.

To study the earth’s surface, two fundamental tools are available, which are topographic maps and aerial photographs, which constitute the most objective representations of the landscape. The increasing use of the hamotivated land is the essential need for plans and topographic charts at various scales, in many activities, such as military use, planning, control, land planning, livestock and agricultural uses, agrarian charter that is used today and must come from topographic chart. The maps allow the representation of the terrain, the distances (geometric, real, vertical, horizontal); relief expression; the level curve system; and the exact measurement of any terrain or part of it. And mind maps allow drawing some challenge, for example in terms of training and learning, individual or business, branching out types such as: knowledge, skills, values, as well as neurological levels and their origin with their strategies, modeling, perspectives and language, and also handle the context of training in terms of lags, advantages, learning and investments, reducing them to strategies. These maps can be drawn overlaid, attached, for a global view. The new learning, that is to say, the new education is based a lot on the mental maps, for the teaching of divergent and non-divergent thinking, for the ease in the sample and the rapid perception on the part of the student. The drawing has also diversified and we find mechanical, architectural, geometric, advertising, abstract drawing, which is expressed through lines, bars, circular sectors, and in general through figures. The graphic language of the drawing has been taken by the exact and inaccurate sciences to graphically express ideas and we find it in accounting, sociology, statistics, computer science, industries, companies in general and many other professions and is used in conferences, lectures, TV shows, and others.

In the resolution of problems the linear representation is used, in two dimensions, tables of numerical values, tables of conceptual or semantic values, logical tables, concrete representations, flowcharts, strategies, means-ends, space-state analysis, symbolic representations and mathematical models, among others. It has been proven that the understanding of a problem statement constitutes the indispensable requirement to solve it. It is precisely what implies making a set of structuring that becomes the mental or internal representation of that problem. If we get people to write the reasoning they make, think out loud, make diagrams, drawings, physical or mental maps, write semantic or mathematical relationships, and others, in order to understand the problem statement, we will be making significant progress in the resolution of it. In addition, we will be seeing the individual’s mental training for the application of divergent thinking. All external representations such as maps, drawings, diagrams, and others, constitute aids for internal mental representation and facilitates the metacomponential skills of solving difficulties, discrepancies, conflicts and problems. Suppose a person leaves their house, walks to the corner, turns on the same sidewalk to the other corner, then goes up to the next, turns right until next time and then descends to the middle of the block, we ask where it’s found? If we make a drawing and make the block, we place the person going down the corner, then crossing to the corner, then up and then to the right and then down, we will realize by the drawing that is in his house or very close to her because the drawing helped in understanding the problem, until it was solved. This is the representation that is discussed in the solution of problems and if we dedicate, even a little time, to learning maps, drawings, diagrams, tables and symbols and equations, we will be about to solve our (personal) problems and help in the resolution of the problems of others (outsiders). The existing situation must be analyzed in depth to determine and see where the difficulty comes from, analyze the four cardinal points, the participants in their origins, the doubts presented and the number, weight and measure of that situation. Only there we can visualize the desired situation with all its splendor to notice the difference. Then we will apply the exploration of factors, conditions and limitations, that give us a passport towards the general achievement as a purpose, that will generate us alternatives and that will allow us to choose one of those alternatives, so that analyzed, rested and settled we respond to the attention, to memory and understanding as the solution to the discrepancy raised and present it to the interested parties as the final goal.


Attention, memory and understanding are grouped into a broad concept that encompasses its conscious control and is called metacognition. It has to do with the closure of mental activities and their opening, thus creating a third element other than what exists, through which all mental processes are known and regulated. Then it is necessary to establish similarities and differences between attention, memory and understanding. Attention is one of the fundamental processes for understanding and learning. If we have not understood something, it is impossible to register it as information. When we select the stimuli and pay attention to them, we ignore everyone else. Therefore attending becomes a true action. But we must know what we must attend to, what are the mental operations that we must perform to attend, such as avoiding internal and external distractions, which can take us away from the act of paying attention. In case of distraction we have to realize immediately and correct. With the repetition of the stimulus we remove the distraction, according to the motivation, we also avoid it. The more growth the more attention. In learning situations, the focus on attention is essential for the purpose of overcoming. Therefore, attentional variables should be used, such as: illustrations, graphics to transmit the information and that the participants have an active intervention, ask questions and compare the new contents with those previously acquired. As for memory is the ability to register, retain and retrieve information. When receiving information you have to save it in some part, to be able to use it later, if necessary. By coding, that is, the selection of important, relevant facts, eliminating those that are not, we record the activities that will allow us to store in an orderly manner what we want to retain or store in order to recover or evoke either medium or long term. The information in memory goes through various levels of processing, such as the start of it that has been called sensory; the brief storage with limited amounts of information called short-term memory; and the long-loop memory which is unlimited in quantity and time. The latter can store facts of our personal life, the experiences we have had and also store general knowledge of all kinds: History, mathematics, geography, languages, religion, etc. World, devil and flesh, for example. Skills in solving problems, beliefs and concepts in general. Finally, understanding is a high caliber process, since only two percent of the population naturally understands; specialists have made efforts to raise that percentage. It implies understanding from a word, a sentence, the interrelation of sentences and the understanding of a complete text without confusing words, sentences, paragraphs or connecting them to each other. It would be like going one way to a certain place, going another way, reaching a different place, which is not in need, nor is it worth anything. Or missing the central idea of ​​the text, leaving the sections or characters without motivation. (Collins and Smith, cited by Lisette Poggioli).


The first of the resources we have is time. It consists of the duration of things subject to moving and is measured in astronomy by the apparent movement of the sun. It is also the part of the duration during which we execute the action of the verbs; we get up, we bathe, we brush, we have breakfast, we go out, we work, we have lunch, we bathe, we brush, we have breakfast, we go out, we work, we have lunch, we have dinner, we watch television, we listen to radio, we pray, we go to bed. Each action corresponds to a verb and has a duration that is part of the whole. It is necessary to measure time and apply said measurement to effectiveness, under penalty of delay or non-compliance. The clock has been the great ally of man to measure time. Each of the activities requires a certain time and if we have ordered the realization of things we will not have to say that time did not reach us, remember that destiny is built today, not tomorrow. Let us dedicate, even if it is a small time to form it and do not wait for later for what you do not leave for tomorrow what you should do today. It is common to hear that the time lost until the saints mourn him. If we must study and we do not, then it is very difficult for us to get used to it again; If we have to do a job today and we don’t do it, it is possible that tomorrow the circumstances change and we cannot do it. Then we find Human Resources. We do not live alone, but society. That is why human resources are of great importance. Hence the trades, occupations, professions, training and in general teaching and learning. Today there is a profession called this: human resources, which help in the development of companies and in general of any organization, because they relate people to the numerary, and teaching with the activity. Human resources feed back the organizations and discover errors of both procedure and background, in order to correct them on the fly without stopping production. Well, the distribution of the human resources that we have is one of the fundamental rules in problem solving, since those resources are trained and known in divergent thinking and can be applied without major cost to the organization or company.

Then come the Economic Resources. A Spanish adage says: Have and hold and you will live well. It is what is called economize, which means not to spend or rather to nominate the economic resources that we have, because whoever spends what they have to ask stays. Money is the quintessential expression of economic resources and has many enemies, inflation is one of them, therefore we must know how to invest in order not to decapitalize; the foreign hand is another enemy of money and we must take care of people who know where we have the money; Services are a source of effective waste of money and so on, but we must be careful not to fall into greed because it is a capital to take care of. Then the Intellectual Resources, that is, the knowledge that we have of a certain sensory organization, in the short or long term. The storage of information is an intellectual resource, as well as the rapid use of it. Otherwise, that is, after the fire goes out, we no longer need information. Learning is an intellectual resource that we must always have, since companies that do not seek constant learning are prone to failure and disappearance. As for the logistic resources it has to do with the provisioning, that is to say with the provision of vituallas that is the same as the food of all the people that have to do with the problem posed. It is logical and of first necessity to satisfy the feeding of the personnel involved, because according to the popular saying, love with hard starvation. Almost all the governments of the earth tend from a political point of view to offer enough food for the people, even if they do not comply with such political offers. But if we follow the rules of well-being, which are drinking water, food, education, that children do not work and that children do not die. The food is in second place, after drinking water, since dehydration is a serious problem that comes from the lack of fluid intake. If we drink non-potable water, the remedy is worse than the disease. In Venezuela, there is a law called the Workers’ Food Law that obliges employers with more than twenty workers to grant them at least one balanced meal per day, on business days. It is precisely in compliance with the logistical resources that this legal obligation has appeared, that speaking in white silver exceeds the salaries or almost reaches them.

Next the communication resources. Who has no communication is lost in the desert, with a scorching sun and without where to eat or sleep, that is to say disconnected and without any information. The information is basic today, so there is Internet, television, press, radio, since the time of the carrier pigeons, has passed to the tail of history. The present technemas serve communication, as the heart to the body. And finally goods as resources. Vehicles, land, houses, animals, savings, inventories, stocks, which must be managed with criteria of scarcity, so that they reach because if we handle them with criteria of abundance, they will be as a widow’s inheritance, for a few days. During that tour we will have distributed the available resources, such as time, human resources, economic, intellectual and logistic, it may happen that the solution, although reasonable, presents some doubts. In this case, it is urgent to monitor the solution through internal evaluations, external evaluations and exercise the feedback ourselves, determining the steps of the resolution to ratify the solution or make the appropriate amendments to the reasonableness of the solution.


To make statistical analysis, it is necessary to have the raw material that is the data, which can come from a population, or quantitative or from a sample or qualitative. Whatever their nature, it is necessary to collect them and organize them logically, in order to analyze them later. The sources must be highly reliable and good instruments should be used in the collection. Consequently, the design of the instruments (spreadsheets-diagrams-questions) must respond to the purpose of the problem to be solved. There are primary sources that are the data obtained by publications edited by the original compiler, such as the reports provided by the Central Bank of Venezuela and the censuses carried out by the Nation through the corresponding Census Bureau, and the secondary sources are the data obtained from publications, which do not belong to the original compilers, as would be the reports that appear in magazines, newspapers and others. If the person who has collected the data discloses them, they are primary sources: if the person who published them is not the collector, the source is secondary. Of course, more importance is given to data from original sources than to the latter. Now, how is information collected? We can make direct observations; interviews; questionnaires by sample or total population. If we use the senses during the search of antecedents in the solution of a problem and we do it as a systematic use, we will be in front of the direct observation, because we are perceiving the external reality orienting ourselves towards the collection of data that we find interesting in the course of the investigation. We must do it scientifically in order to avoid errors derived from subjectivity or confusion and orient that investigation towards precise objectives of study, in a systematic way and previous mechanical controls that do not allow deviation. In the interview, one acts socially, since it is the dialogue that the researcher uses that allows him to obtain the data he seeks for his study. In the interview, the same social sectors provide information on all types of past, present and future activities.

The interview allows us to penetrate the very thinking of the components of society in terms of opinions, expectations, behaviors, desires, administrators, administrators, governments, and in the end of any of the human being’s knowledge. Which would be subject to limitations because of the credibility of the people, that is, because of what people believe and manifest, since if a person has a deformed image of something, but it is his image, he expresses it and so it goes to the researcher, to the pollster. Then we must collect the data, both in the observation and in the interview, with care, to obtain an approximation to the truth of the situation with the data obtained. Through the questionnaire method, a set of questions is asked carefully, about the facts and qualities that interest a population or part of it responding, without the direct intervention of the researcher. The respondent can answer without direct intervention of any person and can be applied to various layers of the population by specialization, according to the interest of the survey and research. The questionnaire may consist of scales, that is, that one question is worth more than another, also according to interest. Keep in mind that, if we use several people to fill out the questionnaire, it is essential the veracity of the information regarding the person who fills it, which must be the interviewee and never the interviewer to get out of the way and try to comply with the work, because in this case the information would be wrong and lead us along imperfect paths. The data obtained must be classified by reviewing them first; then group them and finally classify them manually, mechanically or in any other way. In the review, inconsistent responses, illegible responses and incomplete responses are detected. Upon completion of the review, the data is grouped in a form designed to obtain the volume of statistical data and then classified, much better on a computer. The presentation of statistical data must have a table that in turn is made up of titles, headings, matrix column, body and notes.

Statistical graphs may consist of line graph; bar graphic; circular graph. Using these graphs in solving problems is one of the successful steps of divergent thinking and is part of the structural training needed by education and the new classroom, through the teaching of knowledge, knowledge, coexistence and understanding. Upon reaching this point we will have recognized information gaps, we will have distinguished between data and inferences, extracted inferences from the data and information, establishing relationships between the given data, cleared the unknowns and given the answer. We will have discovered what happened, who acted, when the discrepancy occurred, where the difficulty was, and how the final goal was reached. We were attentive to be able to tell our listeners that we parted attentively, with the resolution of the conflict, of the problem.


It is necessary to distinguish between solving personal problems and problems. In the first we have to act with discipline, concentration, patience, tenacity and know how to react to unforeseen events, such as adaptability and change management. In the seconds we must keep the promises, listen carefully, always be compassionate and tell the truth. All these needs and activities do not teach that there are currently novel situations, that there are no recipes given to them, that we are in search of new ways of observing and addressing the facts, that we must keep an open mind, agile and that change Attitude must be the order of the day. Only in this way will we be able to obtain the operators that transform us into a current state in a desired one through skills, abilities, tools, knowledge or meta-knowledge. The obstacles that form the circumstantial existence of the problem to which we call restrictions will be overcome, which on the other hand influence the initial state, presenting the existing situation and forming the discrepancy or interrogation. It is good to point out that this route should not be done through impulsive behaviors, on the contrary with a calm and calm analysis, with calm and peace, that we should not do it through experimentation, trial and error, that the score is not good counselor, that we should not place more restrictions on the problem, that it is necessary to define the nature of the problem and that we should not follow a single course of current thinking, but use the divergent thinking that we point to at the beginning in any of its modalities. Knowing these problem-solving strategies, we will not give up, but will move on to the final supervised solution.


Another issue that we must point out is that our body is adapted to solve problems if we use, alternatively, the centers that comprise it. In effect we have the motor center, the intellectual center and the motive center. Special technique consists in using the motor center for running, walking, swimming, walking, lifting weights, doing sports and in general outdoor activities to rest the motivational and intellectual centers. If we use the intellectual center a lot without rest, we can unleash a thrombosis and if we use the center motif relentlessly, forcing the heart, we can unleash a heart attack. And with this we will be placing more restrictions on the problem, which is a norm prohibited in the problem solving technique. On the other hand, when we make some physical or mental effort, the call is made, in some philosophies “THE SLEEPED PRINCESS” and in others the Kundalini, which is a circulation of energy that ascends from the gonads to the lapineal and then is poured about the pituitary that is the main spiritual center. That creative energy can be used both for the destructive effects, as well as for the benefit of the individual and his improvement. It is in meditation where this spiritual and biological reaction can best be felt, provided that we have prepared ourselves physically and mentally, already with physical exercises of breathing, body movement, practicing sports or specialized relaxation techniques and conditioning the mind to feel these effects. This preparation comes first to show us the breath that is a power itself. That breath is found in glandular forces that are related to the sources by which the soul dwells within the body. First there are the gonads, which are the male and female sex glands, which secrete hormones, which are only important for vitality, but for the spiritual, mental and emotional health of the individual. Then come the Leydig cells which is the center in which the soul is expressive, creative and inspiring. Through the center of Leydig, individual changes occur at puberty. The adrenal glands that are located on the kidneys that produce adrenaline, are closely related to vigor, perseverance and the desire to move forward, including courage. These glands are related to the solar plexus, which is the great center of the Sun of the body. The thymus that is located above the heart is the seat of the personality that the I uses, the seat of love for oneself and others. It represents the principle of the evolution of man. These four classes of lower glands of the physical body, represent human nature and we must strive to care and maintain to overcome, if we look inward and communicate with ourselves. The three superior spiritual centers are the parathyroid and thyroid that is next to it; the gland behind the brain and the pituitary located in the front center of the brain. The parathyroid glands are responsible for language, and in general speech. They also have a great influence on the ability to choose between this and that. (Power of will). The pineal gland that reveals the forces or desires of the brain, is the very seat of soul memories. It can relate to the biblical passage of Revelation 2.17 about the white stone “And I will give it a white stone and in stone it will be a written name, which no one knows but the one who receives it.” The seat of the mind is considered to be stabbing. And finally there is the pituitary, which is the main spiritual center, because it is extremely sensitive to the vibrations of every genre. It is the healing center of the body. Through the pituitary, love is expressed and is called “the third eye.” We can strive to open the seven spiritual centers or leave them closed and limit ourselves to the material.


The problems can be classified first, structured and unstructured. The former have the necessary and sufficient information to resolve them and the latter bring incomplete information and therefore present a certain degree of ambiguity. We can also classify them as personal and non-personal. The first are worries, daily and serious difficulties. And the second can be familiar and collective. The latter are classified in turn in community and disasters. Community problems are what concern a particular community, such as garbage and drinking water, or education, or child labor or dropping out of school, but that allow a certain degree of elasticity in representation and that can go being resolved, one by one, with public or private resources and although they present a certain degree of complexity, a careful agreement, between the parties involved through mediation, persuasion or conciliation, can conclude in a party of understanding or relief to arrive To the final goal. Mediation, persuasion and conciliation are forms of conflict resolution. The first is to stand between two or more people who quarrel or contend, trying to reconcile or unite them in friendship. In other words, they are alternating the work or the word, or that they are disputing or debating among themselves. It’s like getting into the center, in the middle. The phrase “seeking to reconcile them” means that mediation may or may not succeed; the quarrel, the contest, the dispute or the debate are extinguished and a new situation arises that we can call friendly settlement. It is an agreement that comes from the parties and generally the mediator writes and enforces it, without any other intervention. With this system, time is gained and future problems are avoided, giving discussion an argument and following the new conclusions. Current legislation is bringing this system as a means of resolving conflicts, with the advantage of saving time and avoiding unnecessary judgments, which can reach a happy end to this system. If there is no success in mediation, then it must go to another phase with the intervention of the competent authorities that will resolve the lawsuit, the dispute, etc. Of course, to be a mediator, patience and knowledge of the situation discussed are required to let each of the parties know what their rights are and where they arrive, without ambiguities of any kind and placing the truth as the north of their sayings. If a person knows that he has to deliver an animal (bull) because he has the claimant’s iron, but demands the value of pastures and molasses, it is easy to determine with an expert what is the value of pastures and molasses according to the custom to reach an agreement; because if the claimant places the quintuple of its value as pasture and molasses, not to deliver the animal, because there can be no mediation and the conflict will continue. In matters of family type mediation is always good, so as not to bring to the public issues that only interest the family; also in religious matters and ultimately where there are conflicts between people who have not lost goodwill.

Persuasion consists in inducing, moving or forcing someone with reasons to believe to do something, that is how the statements, the arguments, the reasons given to a certain person to create or do something to which they are obliged arise. , because his situation is so weak that he cannot draw arguments against him and let him know the state he is in; generally, who has no reason, to present this table yields and is persuaded to execute what was denied by the force of a non-existent, false or erroneous argument. And the conciliation is to compose and adjust the spirits of those who were opposed to each other. It is carried out through acts of conciliation in which he appears before a third party (judge, arbitrator, influential person) in order to determine if they can agree and terminate with the discrepancy. In judicial matters it can take various forms: a) the lawsuit is waived; b) it is agreed in the lawsuit; c) the same is traced. All duties must be recorded in a form that must be signed by the interested parties and be approved by the judge, thereby ending a discussion, debate or dispute between the parties. In the divorces lit, homicides and crimes against humanity, mediation, persuasion and conciliation shine due to their absence, by virtue of the controversial situations, and consequently the resolution corresponds to third parties.


Disasters are those problems that we must write in capital letters due to the sinister nature of their presentation and sudden encounter, due to the size of their weight, size and the large number of people affected by any of their manifestations and in the case of Venezuela, are represented by the method of heavy rains. There are two laws related to disasters in the country. The first is called the National Civil Protection Organization and Disaster Administration Law, which is dated November 13, 2001 and was published in an extraordinary official gazette number 5557. This law states that primary care in case of disasters must be exercised The police and the firemen. The police because having them in each town, are the first who have knowledge of the matter to communicate it to the authorities and the firemen because they are specialized bodies of attention in serious cases of alteration of nature. This law also states that in the event of a disaster or rather, the symptoms of a disaster, the authorities (President-Governor and Mayor) must decree a “state of alert” in order to set in motion all the activities of the public bodies in case of disaster effectiveness and at this last moment, decree the “state of emergency”. This emergency, according to the provisions of article 4 number 4 of the aforementioned law, consists of “The Official Declaration”, issued by the first civil authority of the Municipality, State or Nation, after hearing the opinion of the Coordinating Committee of Civil Protection and Management of Respective Disasters, which allows the “activation of technical, human, financial or material resources, in order to address or confront the harmful effects caused by a natural or technological phenomenon that has generated a disaster.” This is what has been done lately in the month of February in 2005, when six States of the country were first affected and then also in another State with worse consequences than the previous ones, such as the state of Mérida. In this state the topography of the land and the construction very close to the riverbeds has generated, with the heavy rain, the major disaster. The other law is the Decree with force of Law of the Bodies of Firemen, Bomberas and Administration of Emergencies of Civil Character. This decree is dated November 28, 2001 and was published in the official gazette No. 5561. Among the faculties of the fire brigades are to safeguard the life and property of citizenship; act on risk management; restore public order in case of emergency; prevention, protection, combat and fire fighting; rescue of patients, victims, affected and injured, in cases of emergencies and disasters; criminal investigation organs; monitor compliance with standards, techniques and safety; observe hazardous materials; moderate, major or serious emergencies; prehospital care; educate and prepare citizens to face emergent situations; provide support for catastrophes, calamities or imminent dangers; collaborate with the search and rescue and in general fulfill its objective in legal form.


We believe that we must be involved in the study and training of disaster management since the loss of human lives and material resources, added to the almost non-existent preparation of the population, and to put it directly in terms of self-protection, that is, to defend the own life and its belongings, oblige us to it. Although the first teaching of Vargas, alerted the country and in this second opportunity of heavy rains, the people of Vargas like that they used the methodology of problem solving by applying divergent thinking of inference, deduction and induction so as not to perish, but not in the Mérida State where there had been no equal issue for a long time. The implication in the study of problem solving, especially in relation to natural or technological disasters, matters a lot because training in the solution of difficulties lightens the reaction time, as for the solution, and we could call chronometric analysis, by the measurement of time between the presentation of the problem and its resolution, since people passively involved in a problem implore speed in the solution. It is what seals factors related to the mental processes of the individuals who solve problems.


There are managerial processes, for the use of information that have been called Mental Processes in the resolution of problems and are used in planning, supervision and evaluation, the first process corresponding to the definition of the problem. In this one, a course of action is chosen to reach the goal, aspirations are reduced or the purpose is abandoned; Next comes the selection of strategies to reach the goal, the elements that help and are also sorted for coding are chosen. It is necessary to distinguish if the problems are no structured, because the choice of strategies in both cases are different. Then the mental representation of the problem must be done to graph it on the paper and establish forms and ways that make us see the discrepancies accurately. Learning to distribute resources is another important step to solve problems; If these are not well managed, the usual thing happens, that the goal is not resolved or is halfway. Often we observe unfinished buildings, they wanted to have three floors, but none were concluded. We ask what happened here? The answer is always the same: resources are over. It was not exactly that the resources were finished, but that there was bad planification and dismal distribution of the resources, because the situation would have changed if the first floor was definitively concluded and if the resources had been reached, the second floor and then the third, whereby one or two floors were serving. Other times we are told that the owner died or that there were family problems between the owners (divorce) which constitutes elements to analyze and determine the conditions of the new interested in continuing to solve the problem (construction). Finally, there is the supervisory management process, which begins with the person being aware of the need for it; know when one activity must be paralyzed to start another, avoid impulsivity, not point guilty, but correct corrections and be receptive to assess external feedback (street surveys). Detail so that the definition, the selection of strategies, the mental and graphic representations, the distribution of resources and the supervision of solutions are tools, abilities and skills that allow us to get where we want whenever we are willing to use divergent thinking and Not a simple everyday knowledge. As for the feedback, the interviewers must be reliable both in word and in knowledge, tell the truth and not be negligent since if the data collection plans are filled with lies and fallacies the result is disastrous, loss of resources, deception , wrong ways and total chaos. If the imput is good, the output is good and we can trust it. In the area of ​​mathematics, processes underlying execution are generated, but where not only underlying mental processes of execution must be generated, but also in direction, execution and supervision is in the area of ​​natural and technical disasters, due to the large number of victims They are affected. In these basic processes, time is a function of the knowledge that is available to solve the problem, hence the daily, constant and continuous training that civil defense members and fire departments must have.

EXPERTS AND NEWS Another aspect is the factors that depend on the subjects actively involved in solving problems. Knowledge, experience, dexterity, skills, efforts, patience, sex and age are decisive in solving problems and especially when it comes to natural or technological disasters. It is what is usually called experts and newbies, the former have more information than the latter and therefore their exposure can be more valuable, provided they have also adapted to the change management that modern life presents. The environmental factors, which are the external factors, no longer directly depend on the subjects involved but on the resources, the weather, environmental conditions, climate, and even the number of participants. In all these factors, the resolution of problems can be broken down into sub-goals, that is, into sub-problems that allow working more comfortably on the solution, solving one by one small problems until reaching the end. We can also climb the slope, which implies moving forward little by little and in each case evaluating the next step until reaching the objective. And when the final part of the problem is clear and not the initial state, it is important to work in the opposite direction and start working, starting from the metaconverting it into data, moving from the goal to the beginning.


There are various types of expertise. Legal medical expertise is one of them; The appraisal is another and in the end the valuation can be carried out through any examination. Now, who does it? It is carried out by people who are called expert experts, because they have special knowledge of a science or art. In legal matters, judicial magistrates are often faced with problems whose solution depends on special knowledge outside their legal preparation and in such cases they occur to technicians in the field to whom they ask for an opinion on the point or points to be clarified. This collaboration incorporated into the files is what is called a judicial expert, and an expert is the one who performs it. Legal medical expertise was incorporated into all laws of all countries, and thus medical science is put at the service of justice.

The duty of an expert to perform expert opinion, that is, the truth, for which one should find it and then want to say it. It happens that sometimes, political interests are imposed on the truth, as in the cases of genocide or war crimes. In these cases, the legal medical reports do not correspond to the truth, but as between heaven and earth there is nothing hidden, at the same time the truth comes out and the crime committed by the falsification of the statements of the experts can be followed. Even Tutankhamen, who was killed more than three thousand years ago, is now known to have been hit in the head, for presenting trauma from a traumatic blow. In any case, the legal medical report must consist of an introduction, presentation, discussion and conclusions. It must go where legal medical examinations are carried out and generally there are two who perform the expertise, although the Organic Procedural Criminal Code does not indicate it, but speaks in the plural of the experts. Which means that they must at least be two. The expert opinion must clearly and precisely contain the reason for which it is practiced, the description of the person or thing that is the object thereof, in the state or manner in which it is found, the detailed performance of the examinations performed, The results obtained and the conclusions made regarding the expert opinion carried out in accordance with the principles or rules of their science or art. The opinion shall be submitted by signed, signed and sealed, without prejudice to the oral report at the hearing. The appraisal is another formality that is often required to establish a result as experience of the experts. It consists of a systematic, orderly and logical method to collect, analyze and process information so that an intelligent opinion can be given about the value of a specific plot. Basically an opinion but that should be supported by the logical analysis of real information. It is currently the best known method to reach conclusions about value. The appraisal process has successfully withstood the test of time. When the properties are subject to taxes, it is necessary to resort to the appraisal to avoid arbitrariness and also the simulation by the debtor. That is, with the appraisal, both parties are entitled. To proceed with the assessment, the nature of the problem is defined; a preliminary survey is conducted; the information is collected; the information is processed

It is currently the best known method to reach conclusions about value. The appraisal process has successfully withstood the test of time. When the properties are subject to taxes, it is necessary to resort to the appraisal to avoid arbitrariness and also the simulation by the debtor. That is, with the appraisal, both parties are entitled. To proceed with the assessment, the nature of the problem is defined; a preliminary survey is conducted; the information is collected; information is processed in value indicators; The indicators are correlated and finally the value conclusion is drawn.

In Venezuela, the tax value of the affected property must be taken into account, the value established in the transfer acts carried out at least six months before the expropriation decree and the average prices at which similar properties have been sold in the last twelve months. One of the most important expertise and where the conclusion of the experts greatly influences, is the graphotechnical expertise. It consists in determining if a signature belongs to a certain person or is not. The document is presented to the judge and if the counterparty denies the signature or declares not knowing it, what is called the comparison can be carried out, which is nothing other than a graphotechnical expertise, to determine whether or not the signature is of the person He denies it. The denied signature is compared with another signature of an inducible document and if the support points and the exits and entrances in general coincide during the study of more than twelve points, the signature belongs to the one who denies it; if not matched, the signature is false or falsified. Another incident that is taking shape in the expertise, is the DNA, especially in paternity trials, when it is denied, in a certain person. Through the procedure of obtaining the DNA of both the person and the other, it is concluded whether paternity is true or not and, consequently, the new reality of a certain action can be established. So far this expertise is carried out in specialized laboratories, but it may happen that in the future, in any laboratory it is carried out. Regarding the expertise as evidence, there is much discussion, since the judge is not obliged to follow the expert’s opinion, if his conviction opposes it. What if it is a truth, is the complementary expertise of the ruling that the judges order and that expertise is mandatory in terms of compliance.


The forms or methodologies for solving problems necessarily enter into what has been called components of knowledge acquisition. Among these components we find verbal reasoning as the ability to use language to differentiate ourselves as a human species from other living creatures. Verbal reasoning is based on the deductive method, in which, it proceeds from the universal to the particular. We have also said that this method is strictly conformed by syllogism, which consists of a conclusion based on the premises as general concepts. It includes verbal reasoning, the study of assertions, analysis, construction and evaluation of convincing and logical arguments. They are all aimed at demonstrating the validity of a reasoning. In this sense, the argument is an implicit structure in the discourse, in order to support the deduction, and of course the argument must be made up of something that is the statement, and these are statements about classes, elements or situations, general structures and whose veracity depends on the relationships between classes or elements that make them up. (Margarita de Sánchez, 1992). It is precise, then, to study the concept of assertion and we can say that it is an affirmation, in which a relationship is established between two concepts or classes, which function as subject and predicate. The assertions have to do with logical validity and empirical truth. They contain essential elements, called quantifiers, are made up of the following words: “all”, “some”, “none” and “not all”. All men are mortal. Some men are professional. No man is eternal. Not all men are professionals. The statements can be universal, positive or negative, and negative positive particular. All and none are universal affirmations and some and not all are particular affirmations. A universal assertion can be true or false. All men are mortal (true universal assertion); All men are eternal (universal false assertion). No man is professional (false assertion); All men are professionals (false assertion). A characteristic of verbal reasoning, constituted primarily by assertions, is that they can be diagrammed by visible representations to demonstrate their properties or some of them. If we make a large square that represents all animals we can make three circles within the square that represent birds, mammals and insects. The representation is good, because it is visible and true. The uncovered space of the square is for the rest of the animals that we have not named. The chain of thoughts to logically express ideas constitutes the study of arguments. The arguments generally express the beliefs and actions of people and everything they influence. When someone takes a certain position, he argues in his favor everything he believes and turns out in his favor. But another person comes and argues to the contrary how much he believes and is in his favor, with which we have two adverse positions that are attractive both.

The arguments can also be represented and can be classified convincing and logical. In the logical argument the statement contains a set of assertions, among which one of them, the conclusion, is derived from the rest, which constitute the premises. These logical arguments may be valid and invalid. If an argument is omitted a premise, or the conclusion omitted, they are called incomplete arguments. Convincing arguments are used more frequently in everyday language. Example: Water is life, don’t waste it. It is a convincing argument, because it tries to show that without water there is no life, which is true; that should not be wasted, because it does not return, spilled water cannot be collected, it is also true and that if we waste it when we require it we will not have it. There are compelling arguments. For example: War is not necessary. War is necessary. This argument allows us to speak for and against many arguments. The study of verbal reasoning is used today for teaching teaching, universities as an essential tool for understanding, understanding and mental openness towards problem solving. We believe that one must begin with elementary or basic schools and also study high schools, which would result in a better expression of Education, as well as better prepared citizens for abstract thinking. This technique of verbal reasoning enters into vocabulary learning, so that the lived experience can be explained and applied.


The medium influences the acquisition of knowledge and also the ability to apply variables. These processes have to do with selective coding, combination and comparison. By coding we separate the relevant information from the irrelevant. The selective combination allows relevant signals to be integrated and the selective comparison allows the information acquired to be related to what is stored as a product of knowledge and experiences. That is, separation or selection and relationship of information with an earlier one, are the processes that make up the acquisition of knowledge, which in turn, are mental processes that are normally called discernment.

It may also consist of essay strategies, elaboration strategies and organizational strategies. These strategies work using short-term memory and long-term memory. Coding, storing and retrieving information are three components of discernment as a method of acquiring knowledge and how to solve problems. The relevant information implies discarding the data that is not important, so as not to follow all kinds of clues since that relevance can be presented as a keyword, so it is necessary to make a careful reading of the statement in order to clearly determine the objective of the resolution. The encoded information can be combined in various ways to obtain the solution of a problem, following step by step, in order to monitor the solution obtained sometimes and through the combination several resolution options are obtained, so it is important to choose the best of the options and for this, we must make a decision among several, applying the selection until we are sure of the goal in a conscious way. Once the coding and the selective combination have been made, we move on to the selective comparison that consists in relating the information recently acquired, with the information acquired in the past. Discernment is used by every person who has use of reason. It is not reserved to any particular person. Nor does it constitute the only one, nor the best way to solve problems, because there can be many forms of resolution as people can exist.


The theory of knowledge covers topics such as sensitivity and the rational; truth as a central theme; the attitudes of the spirit regarding the truth; vulgar knowledge and scientific knowledge; philosophical knowledge; The science; the idea of ​​the method (procedures); method conditions; method structure; analysis and synthesis; method and conception of the world; the math; mathematical reasoning; demonstration; natural Science; observation and experiment; induction; hypothesis and theory; determinism, indeterminism, indetermination; sciences of the spirit; the values; spirit and culture; comprehension; psychology; culture sciences. We will review these sections roughly in order to extract the possibilities of training in problem solving, especially in terms of acquiring knowledge that without the theory of knowledge itself, would be feasible, as it is the acquisition of all knowledge a simple part of the whole, which is the central theory. There are many more titles, but we consider that the essential ones for the purposes of this work are those named. Sensitive knowledge is that which gives us the senses and immediate awareness of ourselves. They are the perceived things that we apprehend by seeing them, touching them, hearing sounds, and others. The sight and the touch are the senses that provide us with knowledge in the first place and the facts of the conscience, such as a pain, a pleasure, a memory or a resolution of the will. External senses and intimate senses, is called sensitive intuition, which is the capture of real objects. Rational knowledge is the relation of ideal objects, for example, to think of a number. If I write the number, that is the representation of the number that is not on paper, or anywhere, but in consciousness, because it is an ideal object. It is the ideal intuition, generally the reason captures the ideal, but it is also assigned the task of finding out what reality is like and in this case the rationalism arises, by contrast, the empiricism that attributes to experience, the preponderant or unique role in knowledge.

As for the truth, we must say that it is the central theme of the theory of knowledge, it consists in the conformity between object and mind, the conformity of lack of knowledge with the corresponding objective situation. There must be a relationship between the trial and the situation to which the trial refers. If I say “the white horse” I mean a certain horse and affirm its whiteness. In reality there is something that corresponds to the horse and white concepts; In my intimacy there is the ability to think about these concepts and relate them. If the relationship agrees with the objective expression, the knowledge is true, the truth comes as a conceptual relationship and its external situation. The truth does not admit degrees, it is always absolute. When knowledge does not correspond to the objective situation to which it refers, it is false or wrong. All the judgments that are issued have at least one claim of truth, what happens is that we always know whether or not that claim is justified. What allows us to discern truth is the evidence. In the evidence we exclude any doubt. The attitudes of the spirit regarding the truth begin when we do not have any kind of knowledge, that is, we are in ignorance, which is the absence of knowledge. If we do not know anything in a calm way, that is, we are in the not knowing; but if we do not know after having made efforts to learn and have put everything on our part to do so, we will be faced with Socratic ignorance “I only know that I do not know anything.” We can call it wise Socratic ignorance. The error is the second of the attitudes of the spirit with respect to the truth, and they consist of taking the false for true, and in the usual use they are usually used, error and falsified in the same sense.The doubt is the oscillation-hesitation that is not resolved neither by the affirmative, nor by the negative is the point of balance between two irreconcilable points of view. Opinion is the state of consciousness in which a true assertion is thought, but with the proviso that it may not be. Opinion can be considered as a judgment The probability is represented by a broken number whose numerator is the number of favorable cases and the denominator is the number of possible cases. s very high equals certainty and when the probability is minimal equals the impossibility.

Certainty is another attitude that consists in recognizing with evidence, the truth of a knowledge, excludes the reserve, the doubt and is sure to possess the truth. In certainty there are no degrees, or it exists or does not exist. As for vulgar knowledge, we can say that an absolute separation of this knowledge is not possible, with scientific knowledge, since it has many steps and most of them border on the scientist, even in its simplest forms. On the other hand, vulgar knowledge has been moving, to what is now called common neglected truths. It differs from scientific knowledge, in that it is architectural, while vulgar knowledge is like sedimentation, like a confusing mass. The scientific knowledge gives a formation of lines, well defined, has unplan and ultimately is methodical knowledge and is presented with security guarantees, while the other is not. Philosophical knowledge devotes much of its effort to elucidate scientific assumptions. In this knowledge we enter into philosophical anthropology, values, metaphysics, etc., which help the picture of it. Science is also unideal but theoretical, technical, ontological, phenomenological, objective and systematic. The idea of ​​the method consists in the procedures that facilitate short and long-term sensory apprehension, to keep in the realm of consciousness. The method allows knowing its firmness, its coherence, its validity, is like saying its organized principle and its guarantee. That is why we say “let’s do it methodically” or do it accordingly. There are methods of research, systematization, demonstration, exposure. In general, the set of procedures for obtaining a fin is called a method; In the case that we are talking about knowledge, that purpose is knowledge. For a method to be lawful and effective, we must be clearly aware of the validity of each of the operations that comprise it and the connections we establish between them. The structure of the method is composed of the link and the address, since everything must have a link and pursue an end, purpose or direction. Analysis and synthesis are the most general methods. The capture of the objects takes the form of a large-scale analysis, since attention has been projected on them, reinforcing the profiles of the objects, highlighting them and individualizing them. Experience is who reports that primary analysis to perform a synthetic operation. That is to say analysis and synthesis. Both are universal modes of knowledge, but more than methods of investigation, systematization and exposure procedures. The analysis consists, then, in the intellectual operation of separately considering the parts of a whole, since the parts assume everything and all assume the parts. The synthesis is an overall inspiration of the object submitted before the analysis, with clarities close by analytical reduction. As for the conception of the world, it can be naive and primary or conscious and critical. Generally the conception of the world made by a certain person can be imposed as a method in certain circumstances, since they come to facilitate the understanding of the facts of cultures. It has always been like this. Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Ciceron, Da Vinci, Galileo, Descarte, Bacon, Sartre, Dilthey, Rickert, Comte, Spencer, Stuart Mill, and all who have done new things and understood. As for mathematics, its entities are not material, but it has a rigidity and context equal or superior in fixedness, to that of all things. We cannot alter a square, but we can break a piece of lead, or iron that is stronger. It constitutes one of the great domains of knowledge. When we talk about problem solving, ninety percent of people think of mathematical problems, made in school, the word problems was associated with arithmetic, geometric and then algebra, trigonometry, etc.

Mathematical reasoning is constituted in the first place, by axioms. They are simple fundamental propositions, which structure geometry, arithmetic and, in general, mathematics. The axioms have been defined as indisputable truths, evident and need no foundation. There is no uniformity to classify them and for some they are analytical judgments, for other synthetic judgments a priori and they have also been called results of the experience. The postulates are a second ingredient of mathematical reasoning. They are judgments that are not obvious, but they are accepted because of them emanate consistent consequences. The analysis, function and set are part of the mathematical architectural structure. For the demonstration it is deduced syllogistically from other recognized judgments, such as certain and necessary and ultimately it is deduced from actions and definitions, the demonstration resolves on the truth of a hypothesis affirming it. The demonstration is made when the corresponding denial is challenged. The natural sciences are circumscribed by nature, which is the set of objects and beings as they are not the product of human action. We must distinguish the natural reality from the spiritual reality. Man belongs to nature and spirituality, the natural sciences investigate objects and beings as long as the hand of man does not produce them. For this, they are worth investigating sensitive objects, through observation. For this reason we call the real sciences, empirical or experience sciences, of observation. Observation is complemented by experimentation. The data is captured, which suggests interest in man, examines its aspects, records them, and performs the examination, the result of which is descriptive and ends with the statement of the perceived. The advertiser must be absent from prejudices and learn without error, that is, as accurately as possible, whatever the observation shows. The senses are the organs of capture, more intimate sense for the spiritual and psychic part. As for experimentation, it may happen that there is material impossibility, but modern life has increased the possibility of experimentation with new techniques and new resources. The unwavering moral limit. Only immoral experiments were done during Nazism, people aging to experiment. Experimentation is an auxiliary method of observation and experimentation, leads to induction, which is the procedure to establish natural laws, and is based on the investigation of the reasons that justify its application, and can not do without considering the provision and effective behavior of objects. Induction can be performed by concordance, by differences, by concomitant variations and by residues. The hypotheses are advances on the experience, which it must judge and is formulated by analogy. If something has happened in an order made at the end, in similar cases something similar must happen. The hypothesis is confirmed or contested.

The theory is an intellectual construction that encompasses several laws, trying to realize reality. The theory can be conceived as a description or as an explanation. It has been said of determinism that it is a conception according to which, each element depends on others in a fatal, necessary way. In the indeterminacy there is an inability to accurately establish an offense. Indeterminism argues that the facts themselves lack a strict determination. The so-called sciences of the spirit, study the human-human nature of reality, man as the founder of culture and culture itself. They study the psychic-spiritual relationship and the environment or environment that it creates, such as language, technique, society, law, science, art, and others. Values ​​are not, but worth. Ortega y Gasset has done a deep analysis on the values. Culture is an environment that man creates and converts in his specific habitat, is formed by myths, technique, science, philosophy, art, law, sociology, political economy, among others. The doctrine of understanding has been developed for some authors, through values, which determine human behavior and culture, as well as the understanding of that behavior and culture as meaningful activities. Psychology teaches that the soul is not enclosed in itself, but open and incorporated into structures of meaning as the objective spirit. It has been classified among general and special psychological psychology, for example the study of characters. The sciences of the spirit comprise a theoretical and a historical branch. Theory gives rise to a normative and a practice, and to each branch of scientific and cultural knowledge, a special philosophy corresponds.


Nor can there be orders established in the use of the processes. There will be people who need to use them one by one, until they become experts in the resolution of difficulties and there will be other people who, due to their high abilities, can use only one way in the mental processes and will get the answer. That is why we said that sometimes, the resolution factors depend on the subject and we expose the theory of newbies and experts. The latter will use a mental arithmetic for timing time in the solution much faster; a newbie does not have enough storage in long-term memory, in order to quickly establish the selective comparison process and must then acquire knowledge in short-term memory, to arrive at such a comparison process. Logically, a newbie can become an expert by improving discernment, by constant practice, that makes him aware of a cognitive activity. This last activity will take you to the search for strategies and the training of them. In the same way you can apply the technique of error analysis, which consists of the search, recognition and correlation of the same, which would be the same technique of supervision, through internal or external evaluations (surveys) and applying feedback, until the possibility of the best option in the solution emerges and exposes it to the interested parties, already corrected or fed back. Reading a material does not bring the improvement of discernment, but the constant use of mental processes that are reversed in the acquisition of knowledge, resources and strategies in the face of every situation that life presents, until achieving a comprehensibility in people and that they become experts and each action that they elaborate can be called experience, that submitted to the analysis by any person or group of people, obtains the approval.


Decision making consists of a mental process that facilitates the resolution of problems. Like any process, it depends a lot on the subject who makes the decision, either because he is directly involved in the resolution of the problem, or because he is a mentor in that matter and can be considered an expert. Consequently, decision-making involves certain difficulties that make the simple or simple solution doubtful and requires an in-depth analysis of the mental processes involved in the execution.

Therefore, strategies are sought that facilitate decision-making, improving the process until we become experts, leaving the classification of newbies, which we have already seen. The factors involved in decision making can be multiple and there is the greatest difficulty for the successful execution of the mental process. We know from experience, that everything has number, weight, measure, color, height, width, flavor, color, smell, distance, solidity, prestige, knowledge, strength, evil, goodness, smallness, greatness, flexibility, location, cost, demand , levels, closeness, remoteness and so on depending on the issue in question. But especially the number that has as many classifications as clouds exist. Arabic, Roman, atomic, cardinal, digit, integer, fractional, mixed, perfect, even, cousin, round, abstract and deficient are just a few denominations with which we find the number: weight, gross and net, heavy, light, rooster and feather; molecular; atomic; Dead, real and simple are denominations of weight. And the measure has to do with the length, volume and area of ​​the bodies. Well, in reality everything has a number, weight and measure, which is a biblical expression in the Book of Wisdom (Catholic Bible) 11,20. The sacred scriptures also refer to the counting of the number of stars; to the number of the children of Israel; large number of descendants; the number of the seals: 144,000; the number of the beast, which is number of man (666). It is also said to give weight to the wind, the false weight is abomination; righteous weight and balance belong to Jehovah; carried in weight by the soldiers and shed all weight. And as for the measure, we have already said it, it is said in the Bible that it is a reference length, volume and area. As for the other words, the most extraordinary in problem solving is location. In general, we must place ourselves mentally by declaring ourselves capable or incapable of solving a problem. In the first case we have the appropriate knowledge, the necessary experience, the acquired wisdom and the appropriate skills and abilities in order to apply them to the problem posed. In the second, humbly declare that we cannot solve it, because we are not able to do so. And physical location, is to determine the place where we are, to establish its coordinates by the Mercator (GTM) transverse system, the cardinal points, at least in twelve meanings such as north, south, east, west, northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast, north-west, south-west, south-southeast, and north-west, that is to say, precisely establish the wind rose, and use letters, maps, knowing the boundaries of each site and locating them with the knowledge that there are two nortes: the north true, that it occurs in the month of December and the other north, which occurs in the month of July, which is the magnetic north. That is why talking about location is talking about geography, detopography, distance, common sense and geometry. But if we apply to every number, weight, measure and location, we can solve as many problems as we request, and we can also talk about magnitudes, shapes, figures, dimensions, functions, movements and forces.


Locating the particularities of each thing, will help us identify the problems, even if they have not given us the data, consequently we must apply the thinking in all its expression, until we achieve the particularities of each similar or similar thing, which allows us to eliminate by the way of the selection, what does not help to take what serves. In the decision-making processes there is a principle we should follow, and it consists in maximizing profit and minimizing loss. Make the most of a decision-making process with the lowest possible cost, that is, spend it very little to invest, to obtain the greatest profit. We must also identify the variables of each idea, object or person. Its characters, and the positive and negative advantages that each element put into discussion has. The variables are located as accurately as possible, we can make a global comparison of the two or more situations, placing each variable a score that we have determined, as an example of one to two and we place the chosen score on each variable and then add. The winning option will be the one with the highest score. This strategy is called Global Printing. Another strategy is to determine how many positive variables have a certain option and how many negative variables, compare them with the positive and negative variables of the other option. The greatest amount of positive variables wins. Another strategy called adding weights, orders each variable to place a higher score, for example, between one and thirty. Weigh each variable to qualify. Thus a perfect variable must have thirty points, but an imperfect variable will have less than ten. A totally negative variable will have 01. At the end of every qualification it is added, added and the option with the highest amount added will win.

Another strategy is satisfaction. It is done by the housewives every day in the market, they buy lettuce, for example and they do not empty all the lettuce in the soil to choose the best one, but they look for and what they think is good, they buy it through satisfaction. Also with the other purchases they make, satisfaction is enough and the purchase is made. No expertise is needed to make the decision. Sometimes we happen to have two almost perfect or good options to make a decision. Well, in that case the experts recommend doing both, if possible, to eliminate the doubt.


Now, who makes the decisions? Necessarily the interested party, just have an updated interest to take it. But as there are experts in certain subject matters, these experts can recommend decision making. The recommendation of the expert is not mandatory, because the expertise does not oblige the interested party, who runs the consequences of decision making. All these strategies in decision-making lead us to a rational way of solving problems and improving the mental processes that are used, provided that all the factors involved in both mental processes, participating subjects and the environment are established. Only in this way will we be able to use the most appropriate strategy, knowing the input level and the output level, to choose the courses of action, which eventually reach serautomatisms, because we will exercise those strategies in an unconscious way, because of the long learning and training we will have reached. We are consciously able to take a very small amount of information from what the world offers us. And today with six, eight or ten radio stations, thirty, forty or fifty television channels and ten or twelve newspapers, which can potentially enter our homes, the information service is stunning and comprehensive. They give information about Venezuela, Mexico, Peru, Russia, USA, Brazil, Patagonia, Greenland, etc. But we warn and respond to a greater amount of information without realizing it. That is, unconsciously. Our conscious part is very limited, because we have said that it is necessary to keep in the field of short, medium and long term memory and this is what we do every day and that is why our unconscious part responds to more of information. The unconscious is smarter than the conscious. The traditional view points out that learning is divided into four stages. First when we don’t know anything and we don’t know that we don’t know anything; Then comes the stage in which we notice that we are incompetent, that is, we don’t know anything, but we want to learn, at least we accept that we don’t know anything and we want to overcome it; Then comes the conscious competition when we learn and know that we have learned, we examine ourselves and pass the test, that is, we are competent and we know that we are; and finally our unconscious keeps knowledge and puts it into practice unconsciously. It is what we do every day, we brush our teeth, we shave, we bathe, we dress, we greet, we look for the bus, or the subway and we go to work. These are unconscious habits that we do without hesitation, without going from the tumbo to the tambo, without trial or error, but we do them with certainty and firmness; Our teeth are clean and our beard shaved. At first it was not so. They had to tell us and remind us to brush our teeth and face. We do all these things so conscientiously, that they are performed harmoniously, while we sing or talk to someone, or listen to radio or watch television. It was so much the practice of these actions that we do them unconsciously and without any effort. And that is learning. But out of habits and entering the field of science, technology, history and philosophy, it is necessary to deepen the information and the storage system, in order to save, organize and bring it into the precise moment, knowing that it must be a theoretical-practical, ontological, phenomenological, objective and systematic knowledge, until arriving, for example, to know what light is from an unconscious point of view and define it at any time as a cross-disciplinary movement of an electromagnetic field, whose energy becomes enfotones. Let’s not let fear intimidate us to make a decision; neither is uncertainty, because in the long run it will be chance who makes the decision. We do not refuse to atomize decisions using strategies, because we must demonstrate capacity to be mayoral as the scriptures say. Solving problems and making sound decisions is the greatest pleasure that life can allow us.

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