The creator of this interesting technique is Edward de Bono, an expert in the field of creativity. This group technique facilitates the analysis and resolution of problems from different perspectives and different points of view. It is a communication tool that offers the possibility of developing a parallel, broader and more effective thinking.

The technique is based on the idea of working with six imaginary hats, each with a different color, representing six different ways of thinking. Hats should be considered as directions of thought that we can use when dealing with a problem. Each of the participants can put on and take off a particular hat to indicate the type of thinking they are using. All participants can use the same hat at the same time.

The hats can be used in any order. The six styles of thought represented by each of them are:

White: making use of this hat we must focus In the available data we see and analyze the information we have and learn from it.

Red: with him we observe problems using intuition, sensations and emotions; Feelings can be exposed without needing to justify them.

Black: with him The thought of judgment and caution is put into operation; allows to highlight the disadvantages and negative aspects of the treated fear

Yellow: with this hat the thought is directed towards the positive; it helps us see the advantages, the benefits, what is going to work properly.

Green: Hats of creativity, with it we can apply a fluid thought in terms of number of ideas, while flexible and original.

Blue: it is the hat of management and control of the thought process; It allows to gather and synthesize the different contributions and draw the conclusions.


Through this method, the group as a whole analyzes, studies, deepens and assesses a specific problem or situation, which may be real or hypothetical. the case that is used in the exercise can be prepared previously, or designed on the fly. It is also compatible with many of the discussion methods mentioned above.

The case method provides a collective vision that allows to analyze in detail a specific case, collect and contrast different points of view, evaluate different possibilities and find optimal solutions.

You can analyze a case that represents a real problem that affects the members of the group. These can be making their contributions in this regard while the person responsible for coordinating the activity takes notes to write the case later in writing. This information is then offered to the group so that they can analyze it, prosecute it and make proposals for its resolution.


This technique is a variant of role-playing. Allows addressing complex issues, personalizing and analyzing a problem or real case through the dramatization. However, what is represented during the same is a hypothetical session of a court of justice.

The group distributes the papers that will intervene in the Session. These are similar to those involved in a real trial: the judges, the defense, the prosecutor, the accused or defendants and the witnesses. At the end a verdict is issued that will be compared with the opinions and the verdict of the rest of the group.


When to use them

Do this exercise when the team is in its early stages of development, when there is not enough communication between team members, or when the team has become too serious or too work oriented.


The purpose of self-stick reminder notes is to make team members more comfortable in relating to each other in an informal way and to feel more relaxed when they are working together. This icebreaker will help interdependent team members work more efficiently, because when team members know each other a bit, they tend to work together more productively.


About forty minutes, depending on the size of the group. Take about ten minutes to distribute the reminder notes and to write the data, twenty minutes for the rounds and ten minutes for the evaluation.


Packets of self-adhesive reminder notes, pens and pencils.


Ask the team to sit around a table or on sofas and chairs, accommodated informally. Hand out packs of self-adhesive reminder notes of all colors. Ask people to take as many as they want (most take two to five). Then ask each person to count the number of self-adhesive reminder notes they have. Then say: “Each note represents something about you and you are very sure that none of the others know so far.” Ask the team members to write the information in their reminder notes.

The information can be something related to one of your previous jobs, something of personal interest, a favorite subject of school, a favorite food, etc.

Emphasize that they should not mention something they do not want. (The idea is not to make them reveal the most intimate thoughts, secrets, passions, and feelings.) Ask them to prioritize their data, leaving first what they think is most fascinating. Then direct two or three rounds in which each member reads a piece of his notes.

What often happens during this activity is that the team, when it comes up with some information that seems interesting, starts talking about it.

I have never seen a member of a team that has not been able to come up with at least one piece of information. Encourage any team member to add things to their reminder notes while the exercise is going on, if he could only think of a single piece of information. Tell everyone that the issues that have already been mentioned can be repeated. To the team members that result with a lot of data, ask them to prioritize a few.

There is a modality that you may want to try. After everyone has written information in their reminder notes, collect them and read them out loud, one by one, and ask the team members to guess who wrote it and say why they believe that. In the end, the person who wrote the reminder reveals his identity.


At the conclusion of the activity, ask the team these questions: What was the purpose of the activity? Do you now have a better understanding of who your teammates are? How will this activity help them work more effectively as a team? Is there someone who withheld information that they wanted to share and would like to do now? Was there any information about a partner that really surprised him? Why was he surprised?


When to use it

The game of originality can be used with any team to print a creative experience. It is particularly helpful when a team needs to be more creative, when the team’s work is becoming repetitive or when a team needs to get away from the daily routine and perhaps find a way to make their work more interesting.


The game of originality has four objectives. The first is to see how creative a team can be. The second objective is to show team members that they can be creative. The third objective is to take the group to discuss what was their process to be creative and have them compare that process used in the game with the processes they use in their real work situations. And the ultimate goal is to make team members reflect on their team dynamics.

That is, how was the communication, who participated, who did not, if the goal was clear, if the team had clear roles and responsibilities, who assumed the roles of process and task, etc


Forty-five minutes: five minutes for instructions; twenty minutes for the development of the game; five minutes to complete the games (if you have divided the team into smaller teams); and fifteen minutes for the evaluation.


Any wafer in the room or team members. or can carry any type of supply or resource.


Tell team members that they have to develop an original competitive game that two or more people or teams can play using the materials they have on their tables. (Instead of tables, you can say desks, personal items, floor objects or a combination of them.) Tell them that the game does not have to be radically different from one that already exists, but that it must have some original or exclusive aspect.

You can not imagine how creative your teams can be with objects from everyday life. The game of originality also works well. If you divide your team into smaller teams and make a competition. If you are going to do this, you need to establish categories for the competencies. These categories can be: level of fun or emotion; clear instructions, simple understandable; Cost and the ease of making the game; originality, etc. I recommend choosing three Categories.

If you do the competition, you will need a judge to choose the winner of each category the overall winner. The Judge can be one of the team members who do not participate in the competition, the team manager or someone other than the team. Ask the two teams to decide in advance what the winning team will get.

The prize should be something symbolic such as a fervent ovation, the wave or serving them coffee during the next few days. And if you split your team into smaller groups, allow them to test each game before starting to qualify. Also, if you think the team has done a great job with your game (when the team has not been split) you can invite outsiders to play it. This action elevates the confidence and unity of the team.


After the judges designate the winners, ask the team questions such as: DO YOU THINK they were creative and innovative in developing their game of originality? What were some key factors that contributed to your creativity? Are you just as creative at work? If not, what are some of the obstacles to creativity at work and how can we reduce its effect? How do you think the team worked together? Do they work the same way at work? Why?


When to use it

Do this exercise when the team is not trying or confronting the real problems that are holding back your progress.


This exercise identifies and analyzes the obstacles that the team is currently experiencing, applies a method of problem solving for these obstacles and gives the teams the opportunity to make decisions. This exercise also introduces a novel way of exchanging ideas.

Time Forty minutes: fifteen minutes to identify the real problems twenty-five to solve one of them. The timeframes are only Suggestions. You are the one who best knows your team.


 An easel and a flipchart or whiteboards with markers.


Ask the team to exchange ideas about the problems they are facing or experiencing at the time. You can use the traditional method of brainstorming or a method known as exchange of written ideas. In this, each member of the team receives a stack of cards and writes as many problems as possible, one on each card.

Then everyone passes their cards to the right or left, one at a time. Any card they receive could generate an additional idea to write it. The exchange of written ideas is done in relative silence; that is, team members do not talk about what they are writing. Gather all the cards and post the answers.

The exchange of written ideas works better than brainstorming when you think you have some team members who will not be willing to verbally vent the team’s problems.

Once the list is completed, team members decide which problem they wish to discuss and try to resolve at the time. They can decide which one to prioritize the problems and choose the most difficult, or they can choose one that is minor but that, if resolved, would give the team a boost. If they can not decide, ask them to choose one at random to work on. It is best that you avoid choosing the problem or facilitating the discussion, even if they are at the developmental level. Two examples of typical problems that teams pose are non-compliance with deadlines and team meetings that do not go well.

For the game of the real problem to work, the team must be taught the method to solve problems. You should also be prepared to give the team some parameters on which decision to make and then allow them to decide how to solve the problem.


Ask the team the following questions: Do you think we were honest in listing our problems or issues, or do you think there are others, perhaps even more important, that did not come to light? If so, say which ones. Do we all work together to solve the selected problem? Give examples of how we did it. How can we improve the process of our brainstorming (or exchange of written ideas)? Are you happy with the solution given to our problem? Why?


When to use it

Do this exercise when team members enter team leadership roles and need to know what leadership behaviors are appropriate and which are not.


The objective of this exercise is to identify effective leadership behaviors that the team considers its members need when they assume team leadership roles or behaviors that leaders should evidence.

This also allows team members to reflect on their own current leadership behaviors.


Approximately thirty minutes, depending on the size of the equipment.


Pieces of cardboard, rope, adhesive tape.


Ask each team member to think of a well-known leader that they believe is or was very good. The leader has to be well known by all of them.

It can be from any field of life: political, business, popular culture, etc. Each person should then write the name of that famous person on a small card.

Ask each of them to put their cardboard sign on the back of another team member. Make sure that the person receiving the sign does not see the name of the leader written on it. The cardboard sign must have a ribbon or rope attached to it so that the team member can “use” it during the activity. If any of them can not think of a leader’s name to write it, have a list of names at hand. For no reason give the impression to that team member that the list contains names of leaders that you think are excellent. Explain that it is just a list of names that some people would place in the category of good leaders.

When all team members have names on their backs, give them the opportunity to read on the backs of others. Then have the group meet in a circle. And one by one, each person in the group asks five questions about the leader of their back, in order to guess the identity of that person, that person can only ask questions whose answers are yes or no. If after asking the five questions you can not guess the identity of that leader, then the team tells you the name. Give everyone an opportunity to play.


Ask the group the following questions: Do you agree that the person written on your back is a good leader? If yes, what characteristics did or did that person make a good leader? Of these characteristics, what do you contribute to the team when it plays a leadership role?

While everyone answers the questions, make a list of the leadership behaviors that the team admires. In future team meetings or team building sessions you can refer to the list and ask the team how it is going to continue in terms of these leadership behaviors.

Continue the evaluation with these questions: What leadership behaviors have we identified that at the moment are not revealed in our team and would be of great value to us if they were used more? What leadership behaviors have we identified that are no longer necessary for team members who have a leadership role? How did you feel doing this exercise? In what way have you helped develop our team?



Congress means etymologically meeting. In a congress, a contact and exchange of experiences and opinions is established among the group of qualified people in a certain sphere, where problems are analyzed based on the information provided by competent drivers. The congresses, which are variants of the symposium, in addition to informing, solving problems, planning and facilitating decision-making, can also expose fundamental ideas of new research or discoveries, since, in reality, it is a con-

tact among specialists, often at an international level.


• Impart information from highly qualified people

• Analyze problems of interest to the congressmen based on the information provided by specialists

· Pose problems.

• Present solutions.


Delegates of groups, associations, etc. Delegates should be participants and not mere listeners.

Weather. One or several days.

Place. Large auditoriums, function rooms, theaters, paraninfos Planning. A commission delegated by the interested body develops a program and then engages renowned exhibitors to make partial exhibitions. Plans the respective programs of the plenary sessions and work sessions and determines the dates of the closing session. Later, he prepares equipment and guides for driving and guidance. It foresees the formation of small groups to activate the interest and achieve the participation of the assistants. The program of the congress is based more on the needs of the participants than on those of the organizers.

Developing. It begins with an opening session where the Congress Objectives are presented. The inaugural speech must be entrusted to a person notable for his knowledge of the subject Then, it is given to read a series of works and insists on the responsibility of the assistants and the role played by advisers and technicians.

There are three plenary sessions The inaugural plenary session informs about the purpose of the event, sensitizes the attendees about the expected achievements and announces the discussion of a series of problems of general interest The average plenary session It serves for the study and presentation of Preliminary work on the conclusions. The final plenary session serves for the preparation of final conclusions and documents of the congress. In the work sessions, where the group is divided by specialties, works are exposed simultaneously and the participants attend the Session that interests them the most. In the final work session the topics already discussed are discussed and conclusions are stated. The congress ends with a Closing Session where the participants make decisions and commitments to carry them out.


Sales. It presents problems of general interest and possible solutions. It is organized based on the interests of large groups and authoritative opinions are heard on important issues. You can start with a panel discussion During the Congresses social events are held where human relations are fostered. The establishment and monitoring of public relations and links are facilitated to the maximum.

Disadvantages Excessive formality, imposing acts. spectacle meetings by tradition, empty, without interest in the obiectives.


How it is performed


When it is a matter of discussing a specific topic, issue or problem, directly and without prior activities, it will be made known to the participants of the Forum with certain anticipation so that they can inform themselves, reflect, and then participate with ideas more or less structured. In the case of a Forum scheduled for after an activity and as a corresponding to it, (film, theater, class, Symposium, Round Table, “Role-playing”, etc.), it should be foreseen that this activity will be carried out. so that all the audience can observe it properly, distributing the time so that it is sufficient for the desired exchange, etc.

The election of the coordinator or moderator must be done carefully, since their performance, as we have said, will have a decisive influence on the success of the Forum. Apart from having a good voice and correct diction, he must be skillful and quick in his action, prudent in his expressions and diplomatic in certain circumstances, cordial at all times, serene and sure of himself, stimulating participation and at the same time controlling Of the same. It insists on these conditions, because experience shows that in the Forum, especially when the public is heterogeneous or unknown, may eventually appear verbotrágicos, tendentious, rambunctious, catechizing, argumentative, in short, unnerving an activity that should be fluid , dynamic, tolerant and respectful of the rights of others. In these cases the moderator (here the name fits very well) must have the right word and the right attitude to solve the Situation without causing resentment or intimidation. His wit and sense of humor will greatly facilitate climate maintenance appropriate.


The Coordinator or moderator begins the Forum by explaining precisely what is the issue or problem to be discussed, or the aspects of the observed activity that must be taken into account. It indicates the formalities to which the participants will have to adjust (brevity, objectivity, loud voice, etc). It formulates a specific and stimulating question referred to the subject, prepared in advance, and invites the audience to present their opinions.

In the rare case that there is no one to initiate participation, the coordinator can use the resource of the “anticipatory responses” (that is, give some hypothetical and alternative answers that will probably cause adhesion or rejection). which starts the interaction).

The coordinator will distribute the use of the word by order form (raising the hand) with the help of the secretary if he has it, will limit the time of the exhibitions, and will ask new questions on the subject in case the consideration is exhausted one aspect

 It will always be a cordial stimulator of the participations of the group, but it will not intervene with their opinions in the debate.

Upon expiration of the scheduled time or the subject is exhausted, the coordinator makes a summary or summary of the opinions expressed. extracts the possible conclusions, points out the coincidences and discrepancies, and appreciates the participation of the attendees. (When the group is very numerous and very active and varied participations are foreseen, the task of making the summary may be in charge of another person who, as Observer or registrar, follows the thread of the debate carefully and takes notes).

Practical suggestions

By its very nature of “free informal discussion”, it is advisable that the group be homogeneous in terms of interests, age, education, etc. This may reduce the nuances of the debate, but instead it will favor the progress of the process, placing it on a more or less stable level, facilitating intercommunication and mutual understanding.

It also seems convenient that the Forum technique be used with groups that already have experience in other more formal techniques, such as the Round Table, the Symposium or the Panel.

When the group is very large there are usually difficulties to hear clearly the exhibitors. To overcome this problem, only remedies are available, such as: limiting the number of attendees to the physical possibilities of hearing in the room that is used; use mobile microphone and amplifiers (resource not always easy); or ask speakers to speak loudly, that can be heard by all (and the rest deprived of dialogue to favor a silence that facilitates the audition).



a) Demonstrate speed in team work

b) Develop mental agility and reasoning capacity.

c) Develop imagination and creativity.


Diverse subgroups of five to seven members each.

Required Time:

Approximately twenty minutes.

Material. Used:

-One copy of Car Race (same as the one found at the end of the exercise).

-Little pencil or pen.

Physical environment:

A room with desks to accommodate all participants


The task of each subgroup is to resolve, as soon as possible, the problem of the Car Race, according to the explanation of the sheet that will be given to each person in the group.

Next, the content of the sheet is read aloud, and the various subgroups are formed for the beginning of the exercise.

All the subgroups will try to solve the problem of the Car Race, with the collaboration of the whole team.

Obeying the information contained in the copy of the Car Race, the final solution must present the order in which the cars are arranged, with the respective color, in accordance with the key that is attached.

The subgroup that first presents the solution to the problem will be the winner in the task.

After the exercise, each subgroup will evaluate the participation of the team members in the group task.

The animator may form the plenary with the participation of all the members of the subgroups, for comments and opinions.


Eight cars, of different brands and colors, are aligned, one next to the Other, for a race.

Establish the order in which the cars are located, based in the following information:

The Ferrari is between the red car and the gray one.

The gray car is to the left of the Lotus.

The McLaren is the second car to the left of the Ferrari and the first to the right of the blue car.

The Tyrell does not have a car on his right and is after the black car.

The black car is between the Tyrell and the yellow car.

The Shudow has no car left; It is to the left of the green car.

To the right of the green car is the March.

8. The Lotus is the second car to the right of the cream car and the second to the left of the brown car.

The Lola is the second car to the left of Iso.


1. The Shudow, Color blue.

2. The MCLaren color green.

3. The March, Red color.

4. The Ferrari, Cream color.

5. The Lola, Gray color.

6. The Lotus. yellow color.

7. The Iso, Black color.

8. The Tyrell, brown color.


A team of experts discusses a topic in the form of dialogue or conversation before the group.

As in the case of the Round Table and the Symposium, the Panel gathers several people to present their ideas on a specific topic before an audience. The difference, however, is that in the Panel said experts do not “expose”, do not “speak”, do not act as “Speakers”, but dialogue, discuss, debate among themselves the proposed topic, from their particular points of view and specialization, because each one is expert in a part of the general subject.

In the Panel, the conversation is basically informal, but nevertheless, it must follow a coherent, reasoned, objective development, without deriving disquisitions that are alien or distant from the subject, or in too personal appraisals. The members of the Panel – from 4 to 6 people try to develop through the conversation all the possible aspects of the topic, so that the audience obtains a relatively complete vision about it.

 A coordinator or moderator It has the function of presenting the members of the Panel before the audience, ordering the conversation, interpolating some clarifying questions, controlling the time, etc.

Once the Panel is finished -whose duration can be around one hour, depending on the case- the conversation or debate of the topic can be passed on to the audience, without the presence of the members of the Panel being required. The coordinator can continue to conduct this second part of the group activity, which will then have become a “Forum”.

Informality, spontaneity and dynamism are characteristic of this group technique, features that are generally well accepted by all audiences.

How it is performed


According to the theme chosen for the Panel, the organizer selects the components or members of the same, trying to be people trained in the matter, who can provide ideas more or less original and diverse, that focus on the different aspects and that have ease of word (but not verbiage), critical judgment and capacity for analysis as well as for the Synthesis. It would still be desirable, at least in some, a certain sense of humor to entertain a conversation that could become at times a bit tiring.

It is convenient a prior meeting of the coordinator with all the members that will intervene in the Panel, to change ideas and establish an approximate plan of the development of the session, get involved in the topic, order the subtopics and particular aspects, set the duration, etc.

Thus, although the Panel should appear later as a spontaneous and improvised conversation, it requires certain preparations, such as those presented, for its success. Examples of this technique are usually seen on television.


The Coordinator or moderator starts the session, introduces the members of the Panel, and asks the first question about the topic that will be discussed.

Any of the members of the Panel initiates the conversation (it can be foreseen who will do it), and the dialogue that will be developed will take place according to the flexible plan also foreseen.

The Coordinator intervenes to ask new questions about the topic, to orient the dialogue towards untouched aspects, to focus the Conversation on the subject when it deviates too much from it, to overcome any possible tension situation that may occur, etc. It will stimulate dialogue if it decays, but without intervening with its own opinions.

About 5 minutes before the end of the dialogue, the coordinator invites the members to make a very brief summary of their ideas.

Finally, the coordinator himself, based on the notes he will have taken, will highlight the most important conclusions.

If so desired and time permits, the Coordinator may invite the audience to change ideas about the exposed, informally, in the style of a Forum. At this stage, the presence of the members of the Panel is not essential, but if they wish, they can answer questions from the audience, in which case the coordinator will act as “channel” of said questions, deriving them to the corresponding member.

Practical suggestions

The members of the Panel and the coordinator must be located so that they can see each other to dialogue, and at the same time be seen by the audience. The semicircular location is usually the most convenient, either behind a table or without it but with comfortable seats.

A Secretary can be appointed to take note of the most important ideas, which can then be distributed among the interested parties. It also requires the use of a recorder.

It is advisable to take special care in the election of the members of the Panel, because a conversation of this kind must keep awake the interest of an audience that remains in expectant passivity. Apart from the knowledge and authority on the subject, it is required in the interlocutors certain dowries of amenity, ease of speech, clarity of exposition, serenity, ingenuity, and some Out of good humor.

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